Ugonyo lonyango lwebhayoloji olulungiselelwa ukuba lunike amandla kumajoni omzimba ukulwa isifo esithile esosulelayo. Ichiza lokugonya ngokwesiqhelo lihlala linomgunyaziso ofana nesifo esibangela iintsholongwane ezingabonakaliyo. Ihlala yenziwe kwizinto ezibuthathaka okanye ezibuleweyo ze-microbe, izinto ezimdaka, okanye enye yeeprotheyini zayo ezingaphezulu. Umgunyazisi ukhuthaza amajoni omzimba ukuba aqaphele i-arhente njengesoyikiso, ayitshabalalise, kwaye aqonde ngakumbi aze atshabalalise naziphi na iintsholongwane ezinxulumene nayo kwixesha elizayo.

Ukunika umntu iyeza lokuthintela isifo kuthiwa kukugonywa. Ugonyo yeyona ndlela isebenzayo yokuthintela izifo ezosulelayo.[1] Ugonyo lunoxanduva lokuphelisa irhashalala kunye nokuncitshiswa kwezifo ezifana nepoliyo, imasisi, kunye ne-tetanus. Ugonyo olufunyenwe lusebenza ngokufanelekileyo lubandakanya iyeza lokuthintela umkhuhlane,[2] ichiza lokuthintela isifo i-HPV, kunye nechiza lokuthintela ingqakaqha (chicken pox).

Amagama ichiza kunye nokugonya afunyenwe kwi-Variolae vaccinae (irhashalala yenkomo), gama elo lisungulwe ngu-Edward Jenner ngenxa yerhashalala yenkomo

Ukusebenza ngempumeleloEdit

Ugonyo yindlela ekhuselekileyo nesebenzayo yokulwa nokutshabalalisa izifo ezosulelayo.[3] Nangona kunjalo, ukusikelwa umda ekusebenzeni kwazo kukhona.[4]

Ukusebenza ngempumelelo okanye ukusebenzisa ugonyo kuxhomekeke kwizinto ezininzi:

  • isifo ngokwaso (kwezinye izifo ugonyo lusebenza ngcono kunezinye)
  • uhlobo logonyo (ugonyo oluthile luchaphazela ngqo okanye lusebenza ngokuchasene nobunzima besifo)[5]
  • nokuba ishedyuli yokugonya iye yaqwalaselwa ngokufanelekileyo

impendulo e-idiosyncratic kugonyo; Abanye abantu abasetyenzelwa kakuhle ngamachiza okugonya athile.

  • izinto ezinje ngobuzwe, ubudala, okanye ubunjani bokudalwa.

Ukuba umntu ogonyiweyo uhlaselwe sisifo agonyelwe sona (isifo esosulelayo), isifo sinokuba nobungozi obunciphileyo kunamaxhoba angagonywanga.[6]

Oku kulandelayo luqwalaselo olubalulekileyo ekusebenzeni kwenkqubo yogonyo:

  1. Ukucwangcisa ngononophelo ukuze ulindele ifuthe iphulo lokugonya elinokuba nalo embindini ukuya kwithuba elide
  2. Uqwalaselo oluqhubekayo lwesifo esichaphazelekayo.
  3. ukugcinwa kwamanqanaba aphezulu ogonyo, nokuba isifo sinqabile.

Ugonyo luye lwakhokelela ekutshatyalalisweni kwerhashalala, esona sifo esosulelayo nesibulalayo ebantwini. Ezinye izifo ezinje nge-rubella, ipoliyo, imasisi, uqilikwane, ingqakaqha, kunye nokudumba kwamadlala aziqhelekanga njengoko zaziqhelekile kumakhulu eminyaka eyadlulayo ngenxa yogonyo lwajikelele.

Ukuba uninzi lwabantu lugonyiwe, kunzima kakhulu ukuba kuqhambuke isifo okanye sisasazeke. Esi siphumo sibizwa ngokuba kukungabikho komhlambi.

Amachiza akwanceda ukunqanda ukukhula kweyeza lokuthintela intsholongwane. Umzekelo, xa kuncitshiswa izigulo zenyumoniya ezibangelwa yi-Streptococcus pneumoniae, iinkqubo zokugonya zinciphisa ukubakho kosulelo olunxamnye ne-penicillin okanye ezinye izibulali-ntsholongwane.

Ichiza lemasisi liqikelelwa ekuthinteleni ukusweleka kwabantu kangangesigidi esinye ngonyaka.

Iziphumo ezibiEdit

Ugonyo olunikezwe ngexesha lobuntwana lukhuselekile ngokubanzi. Iziphumo ezigwenxa, ukuba zikhona, ngokubanzi zilulamile. Iziphumo eziqhelekileyo ezichaphazelekayo zibandakanya umkhuhlane, iintlungu ezijikeleze indawo yesitofu, kunye nokuqaqanjelwa yimisipha. Ukongeza, abanye abantu banokungadibani nezinye izinto eziye zafakwa kwichiza lokugonya. Iziphumo ezibi zinqabile kakhulu.

IintloboEdit

Izitofu ziqulathe izinto ezifileyo okanye ezingasebenziyo okanye iimveliso ezihlanjululweyo ezivela kuzo. Kukho iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zokugonya ezisetyenziswayo.

AyisebenziEdit

Olunye ugonyo luqulathe izinto ezincinci ezingasebenziyo eziye zatshatyalaliswa ngeekhemikhali, ubushushu, okanye imitha. Imizekelo ibandakanya ichiza lokugonya ipoliyo, isifo se-hepatitis A, ichiza lokugonya isifo samarabi kunye namanye amachiza omkhuhlane.

YothukileEdit

Amanye amachiza ogonyo aqulathe iintsholongwane ezingabonakaliyo ezinokuphila. Ezi zihlala zicaphukisa iimpendulo ezinde zogonyo, kodwa zisenokungakhuseleki ukuba zisetyenziswe kubantu abangagonywanga.

I-TyhefuEdit

Amachiza okugonya ityhefu enziwa ngezinto ezinobutyhefu ezingasebenziyo ezibangela ukugula ngaphandle kwe-ntsholongwane engabonakaliyo.

Iyunithi encinciEdit

Iyuthi encinci yamachiza isebenzisa isiqwengana sentsholongwane engabonakaliyo ukwenza intshukumo yokuzikhusela komzimba.

UkudibanisaEdit

Ezinye iibhaktheriya zigqunywe ngeengubo zepynysaccharide ezingalunganga kakuhle emzimbeni. Ngokudibanisa ezi ngubo zangaphandle kunye neeprotheyini, amajoni omzimba angayibona ipolysaccharide ngokungathi yiprotheyini antigen.

AmalingeEdit

Inani lamachiza okugonya asemanyathelweni okuphuhliswa kwaye ayasetyenziswa.

Uninzi lwezitofu zokugonya ziyenziwa kusetyenziswa inkomponi engasebenziyo okanye echongwe kwimicro-organism. Izitofu zeplastiki zokugonya ziyilwe ziquka ikakhulu zizinto zeplastiki.

UkuxhaphakaEdit

Amachiza okugonya anokuxhaphaka kube kanye okanye kaninzi. Ichiza logonyo olubonakala kanye lenzelwe ukuba kugonywe intsholongwane enye okanye intsholongwane engabonakaliyo enye. Ichiza logonyo olubonakala kaninzi lenzelwe ukukhusela iintsholongwane ezimbini okanye ngaphezulu zentsholongwane engabonakaliyo ezifanayo, okanye ngokuchasene ne-microogarnism ezimbini okanye ngaphezulu.

I-heterotypicEdit

La ngamachiza asebenzisa i-pathogens zezinye izilwanyana ezingabangeli sifo okanye zibangele isifo esingaxhalabisiyo kumntu lo unyangwayo.

Amajoni omzimba asakhulayoEdit

Amajoni omzimba aqaphela ii-arhente zamachiza ogonyo njengezangaphandle, azitshabalalise, kwaye "azikhumbule'. Xa udidi lwengozi ye-arhente ludibana, umzimba uyayibona intsholongwane kwaye uzimisele ukuphendula:

  1. ngokukhubaza i-arhente ejolise kuyo ngaphambi kokuba ingene kwiiseli;
  2. ngokuqonda kunye nokutshabalalisa iiseli ezosulelekileyo ngaphambi kokuba i-arhente iphindaphindwe.

Amachiza angamanye nokunqanda ukubolaEdit

likhawulezise impendulo evela kumajoni omzimba.

Amachiza ogonyo anganako nokuqulatha izilondolozi ezinqanda ungcoliseko lwentsholongwane kunye nokubola.

IshedyuliEdit

Ukwenzela ukubonelela ngokhuseleko olululo, abantwana bayacetyiswa ukuba bafumane ugonyo ngokukhawuleza nje ukuba amajoni omzimba abo aphuhliswe ngokwaneleyo ukuba aphendule kwichiza lokugonya oluthile. Izikhuselo ezongezelelweyo 'zokuxhobisa' ziyafuneka ukuze kufezekiswe 'ukugonywa' ngokupheleleyo. Oku kukhokelele kuphuhliso lweeshedyuli zokugonya ezintsonkothileyo.

Izitofu ezininzi zokugonya zicetyiswa kweminye eminyaka yobudala okanye isitofu esiphinda-phindwayo ubomi bonke. Umzekelo, imasisi, isifo sokuqina kwemiphunga, umkhuhlane, kunye nenyumoniya. Iingcebiso zokugonywa kwabantu abadala zigxile kakhulu kwi-nyumoniya kunye nomkhuhlane.

ImbaliEdit

Phambi kokungeniswa kogonyo kunye nezinto ezivela kwiimeko zorhashalala lwenkomo, irhashalala inokunqandwa ngokufakwa ngabom kwentsholongwane yerhashalala xa ugonywa. Iingcebiso zangaphambili zokuqhuba ngalendlela ziphuma e Tshayina kwiinkulungwane ezilishumi zangaphambili.

Ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yoo-1760 uEdward Jenner wafunda ukuba abasebenzi bamveliso zobisi zange bayifumane irhashalala kuba sele bosuleleka yirhashalala yenkomo . Ngo-1796, uJenner wathabatha ubofu kwisandla somama osengayo owayenerhashalala yenkomo, wayityikida engalweni yenkwenkwana eneminyaka esi-8 ubudala, kwathi emva kwiiveki ezintandathu wayigonya le nkwenkwana ngechiza elinerhashalala. Akazange abenarhashalala umfana. UJenner wazandisa izifundo zakhe kwaye ngo-1798 waxela ukuba ichiza lakhe lokugonya likhuselekile ebantwaneni nakubantu abadala.

Isizukulwana sesibini sokugonya saziswa malunga no-1880s nguLouis Pasteur.

Kwinkulungwane yamashumi amabini kwabonwa ukuqalwa kogonyo oluyimpumelelo oluninzi, kubandakanywa naleyo ichasene ne-diphtheria, imasisi, uqilikwane, kunye nerubella. Impumelelo enkulu ibandakanya ukuphuculwa kwezitofu zokugonyela ipoliyo ngeminyaka ye-1950s kunye nokutshatyalaliswa kwerhashalala ngeminyaka yo-1960 kunye no-1970. UMaurice Hilleman wayengoyena mntu uphucukileyo wabaphuhlisi balamachiza kule nkulungwane yamashumi amabini.

Uninzi kuphuhliso lwamachiza ukuza kuthi ga ngoku luxhomekeke kwinkxaso-mali kurhulumente, iidyunivesithi kunye nemibutho engenzi nzuzo. Amachiza amaninzi okugonya axabisa kancinci kwaye ayinzuzo kwimpilo yoluntu. Inani lamachiza asetyenzisiweyo axhume ngokumangalisayo kwinkulungwane yeminyaka yakutshanje. Ukongeza, ugonyo lwezilwanyana kusetyenziswa ukunqanda usulelo lwezifo kunye nokusasazeka kwezifo ebantwini.

Amalungelo awodwa omenzi wechizaEdit

Ukugcwaliswa kwamalungelo awodwa omenzi wechiza kwiinkqubo zophuhliso lokugonyelwa nako kunokuba ngumqobo kuphuhliso lwamachiza amatsha. Ngenxa yokhuselo olubuthathaka olunikezelwa ngamalungelo awodwa omenzi wechiza, ukukhuselwa kwezinto ezintsha zihlala zenziwa ngokushicilela inkqubo yophuhliso nangokukhuselwa kwemfihlo.

Ngokutsho koMbutho wezeMpilo weHlabathi, owona mqobo mkhulu kwimveliso yamachiza ogonyo lwasekhaya kumazwe angaphuhlanga kakhulu yimali, iziseko ezingamancedo, kunye neemfuno zomsebenzi wobungcali obufunekayo ukuze ungene kwimarike.

Inkqubo yokuhanjiswaEdit

Ukuphuhliswa kweenkqubo zokuhanjiswa ezintsha kuphakamisa ithemba lamachiza akhuselekileyo nalungele ngakumbi ukuhanjiswa nokusetyenziswa.

Uphuhliso oluphawulekileyo kubuchwephesha bokuhambisa ichiza lubandakanya amachiza omlomo. Iyeza lokunqanda ipoliyo ngomlomo libonakala lisebenza xa linikezelwa ngabasebenzi abangafuni ntlawulo ngaphandle koqeqesho olucwangcisiweyo. Ugonyo lokuvavanywa ngaphandle kwenaliti. luyaqhubeka kwizilwanyana. Isikiti esilingana nesitampu esifana ne-bande enamathela ama-20,000 microscopic eziqikelelweyo nge-cm nganye.

IimoEdit

Ukuphuhliswa kwechiza lokugonya luneemo eziliqela

  • Kude kube kutshanje, uninzi lwamachiza okugonya ajolise kwiintsana nasebantwaneni, kodwa ngoku ulutsha kunye nabantu abadala kuya kujoliswa kubo.
  • Indibanisela yamachiza okugonya aya exhaphaka.
  • Iindlela ezintsha zokulawula amachiza okugonya ziyaphuhliswa
  • Amachiza ayenziwa ukukhuthaza iimpendulo zokuzivikela ngaphakathi, kunye nokuziguqula.
  • Amalinge ayenziwa ukuphuhlisa amachiza ogonyo ukuze aphilise izigulo eziphila nabantu.
  • Amachiza ayaphuhliswa ukukhusela ukuhlaselwa ngabagrogrisi abanobuchule ekusebenziseni amayeza.
  • Oosonzululwazi ngoku bazama ukuphuhlisa amayeza okugonya ngokwakha ngokutsha amachiza eplastiki. Oku kuyakunceda ukunqanda ukunganyangeki.

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Deputy Director for Infectious Diseases | CDC" (in en-us). 2019-05-20. https://www.cdc.gov/ddid/index.html. Retrieved 2020-07-01.
  2. Fiore, Anthony E.; Bridges, Carolyn B.; Cox, Nancy J. (2009) "Seasonal Influenza Vaccines" in Compans, Richard W.; Orenstein, Walter A. Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology (in English) (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer): 43–82 ISBN 978-3-540-92165-3 doi:10.1007/978-3-540-92165-3_3 
  3. Orenstein, W. A.; Bernier, R. H.; Dondero, T. J.; Hinman, A. R.; Marks, J. S.; Bart, K. J.; Sirotkin, B. (1985) "Field evaluation of vaccine efficacy." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 63 (6): 1055–1068 ISSN 0042-9686 PMC 2536484 PMID 3879673 
  4. Grammatikos, Alexandros P.; Mantadakis, Elpis; Falagas, Matthew E. (2009-06-01) "Meta-analyses on Pediatric Infections and Vaccines" Infectious Disease Clinics of North America Meta-analysis in Infectious Diseases (in English) 23 (2): 431–457 ISSN 0891-5520 doi:10.1016/j.idc.2009.01.008 
  5. Schlegel, Matthias; Osterwalder, Joseph J; Galeazzi, Renato L; Vernazza, Pietro L (1999-08-07) "Comparative efficacy of three mumps vaccines during disease outbreak in eastern Switzerland: cohort study" BMJ : British Medical Journal 319 (7206): 352 ISSN 0959-8138 PMID 10435956 
  6. Préziosi, Marie-Pierre; Halloran, M. Elizabeth (2003-09-15) "Effects of Pertussis Vaccination on Disease: Vaccine Efficacy in Reducing Clinical Severity" Clinical Infectious Diseases (in English) 37 (6): 772–779 ISSN 1058-4838 doi:10.1086/377270