Ielectron yintwana nje yento ntwana encinane ye-matter ne-energy. uphawu lwayo yi-e.

I-electron iphuma kw-i-subatomic particle. Kukholelwa okokuba yielementary particle kuba ayinakuhlahleleka okanye ayinakucukucezeka ibe yiyo nantonina encinane ngaphezu kokuba ingako. [1] |Itshajwa ngophawu olu-negative ngokozibuthe,[2] kwaye intshukumo yazo phantse ibesisantya sokuqhwanyaza kombane.[3]

Ii-Electrons zithabatha inxaxheba kwi-gravitational, i-electromagnetic nakwiweak interactions.[4] I-electricity enika amandla ee-radios, ee-moto, nezinye izinto ezininzi zenziwe ngee-electrons ezininzi nezihamba ngeengcingo okanye ngezinye iizinto ahamba ngazo amandla ombane zinto ezo kuthiwa zii-conductors.

[[File:Bohr atom model English.svg|right|thumb|Imodel i-Niels Bohr model ye-atom. Amaqweqwe amathathu e-electron ange-nucleus, ane-electron ehamba isuka kwinqanaba lesibini nelokuqala ihamba ikhiqiza ii-photon. Ii-Electrons zinetshaji yombane encinane kuzo zonke. Le tshaji yombane ilingana netshaji ye-proton, kodwa yona eye-electon inophawu oluchaseneyo nolweproton. ngenxa yoko, ii-electrons zibanombizelane kw-iiprotons ze-atomic atoms ezikwii-nuclei zitsho zenze ii-atoms. i-electron inobunzima bayo obuphindaphindwe ka-1/1836 kunobo be-proton.[5] Inye indlela ongacinga ngayo malunga nokkokuba zifumaneka phi na ii-electrons kwi-atom kukuba zijikeleza ndawoninye ukusuka kwinucleus. ngale ndlela, ii-electrons ezikwi-atom zihlala ku-kumaqokobhe e-electrons ajikeleze umphakathi kwisizikithi se- nucleus. Iqokobhe le-electron ngalinye linikwa inombolo ethi 1, 2, 3, njalo, njalo, ukusuka kuleyo ifufutshane kunazo zonke kwi-nucleus (kanye kumphakathi wesikhumba esiliqokobhe). Iqokobhe ngalinye lingagcina inani elithile lee-electrons. Isenzo sokwabiwakwee-electrons zisabelwa kumaqokobhe-ngamaqokobhe kuthiwa kwenziwa i-electronic arrangement (okanye luhlobo emile ngayo i-electronic). Ukucwangciswa kwe-electronic kungaboniswa ngokuthi inonjolwe ngamanani okanye ngeelectron diagram. (indlela eyahlukileyo yokucinga ngendawo ezifumaneka kuyo ii-electrons kukusebenzisa ii-quantum mechanics ukuze kubalwe ii-atomic orbitals zazo)

I-electron yenye is one of a class of subatomic particles called leptons. The electron has a negative electric charge. The electron has another property, called spin. Its spin value is 1/2, which makes it a fermion.

While most electrons are found in atoms, others move independently in matter, or together as cathode rays in a vacuum. In some superconductors, electrons move in pairs. When electrons flow, this flow is called electricity, or an electric current.

An object can be described as 'negatively charged' if there are more electrons than protons in an object, or 'positively charged' when there are more protons than electrons. Electrons can move from one object to another when touched. They may be attracted to another object with opposite charge, or repelled when they both have the same charge. When an object is 'grounded', electrons from the charged object go into the ground, making the object neutral. This is what lightning conductors do.

Chemical reactions


Electrons in their shells round an atom are the basis of chemical reactions. Complete outer shells, with maximum electrons, are less reactive. Outer shells with less than maximum electrons are reactive. The number of electrons in atoms is the underlying basis of the chemical periodic table.[6]



Electric charge can be directly measured with a device called an electrometer. Electric current can be directly measured with a galvanometer. The measurement given off by a galvanometer is different from the measurement given off by an electrometer. Today laboratory instruments are capable of containing and observing individual electrons.

'Seeing' an electron


In laboratory conditions, the interactions of individual electrons can be observed by means of particle detectors, which allow measurement of specific properties such as energy, spin and charge.[7] In one instance a Penning trap was used to contain a single electron for 10 months.[8] The magnetic moment of the electron was measured to a precision of eleven digits, which, in 1980, was a greater accuracy than for any other physical constant.[9]

The first video images of an electron's energy distribution were captured by a team at Lund University in Sweden, February 2008. The scientists used extremely short flashes of light, called attosecond pulses, which allowed an electron's motion to be observed for the first time.[10][11] The distribution of the electrons in solid materials can also be visualized.[12]



The antiparticle of the electron is called a positron. This is identical to the electron, but carries electrical and other charges of the opposite sign. When an electron collides with a positron, they may scatter off each other or be totally annihilated, producing a pair (or more) of gamma ray photons.

History of its discovery


The effects of electrons were known long before it could be explained. The Ancient Greeks knew that rubbing amber against fur attracted small objects. Now we know the rubbing strips off electrons, and that gives an electric charge to the amber. Many physicists worked on the electron. J.J. Thomson proved it existed,[13] in 1897, but another man gave it the name 'electron'.[14]



  1. Purcell, Edward M. 1985. Electricity and Magnetism. Berkeley Physics Course Volume 2. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-004908-4.
  2. "JERRY COFF" retrieved 10 September 2010 
  3. For instance, as beta particles, and in the inner electron shells of elements with a large atomic number. US Dept. of Energy: [1]
  4. Anastopoulos, Charis 2008. Particle or Wave: the evolution of the concept of matter in modern physics. Princeton University Press. pp261–262. ISBN 0691135126.
  5. "CODATA value: proton-electron mass ratio" 2006 CODATA recommended values National Institute of Standards and Technology retrieved 2009-07-18 
  6. Pauling, Linus C. 1960. The nature of the chemical bond and the structure of molecules and crystals: an introduction to modern structural chemistry (3rd ed). Cornell University Press. pp4–10. ISBN 0801403332.
  7. Grupen, Claus 1999. "Physics of Particle Detection". AIP Conference Proceedings, Instrumentation in Elementary Particle Physics, VIII. 536. Istanbul: Dordrecht, D. Reidel Publishing Company. pp. 3–34. doi:10.1063/1.1361756.
  8. Staff (2008) "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989" The Nobel Foundation retrieved 2008-09-24 
  9. Ekstrom, Philip (1980) "The isolated Electron" (PDF) Scientific American 243 (2): 91–101 retrieved 2008-09-24 
  10. Mauritsson, Johan "Electron filmed for the first time ever" (PDF) Lunds Universitet archived from the original on 2009-03-25 retrieved 2008-09-17 
  11. Mauritsson, J.; Johnsson, P.; Mansten, E.; Swoboda, M.; Ruchon, T.; L’huillier, A.; Schafer, K. J. (2008) "Coherent Electron Scattering Captured by an Attosecond Quantum Stroboscope" (pdf) Physical Review Letters 100: 073003 doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.073003 archived from the original on 2017-02-27 retrieved 2015-10-12 
  12. Damascelli, Andrea (2004) "Probing the electronic structure of complex systems by ARPES" Physica Scripta T109: 61–74 doi:10.1238/Physica.Topical.109a00061 
  13. Davis & Falconer, J.J. Thomson and the Discovery of the Electron
  14. Shipley, Joseph T. 1945. Dictionary of word origins. The Philosophical Library. p133.

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