Open main menu
Iqhenqa
IqhenqaUmfana oneminyaka engama-24 ubudala waseNorway, wosuleleka liqhenqa, 1886
Umfana oneminyaka engama-24 ubudala waseNorway, wosuleleka liqhenqa, 1886
Uhlelo nezibonelelo zangaphandle
ICD/CIM-10A30 A30
ICD/CIM-9030 030
OMIM246300
DiseasesDB8478
MedlinePlus001347

Iqhenqa, elikwaziwa njengo-Hansen's disease (HD), lisisifo sexesha elide esibangelwa yi-bacteria Mycobacterium leprae ne-Mycobacterium lepromatosis.[1] Ekuqaleni, izifo azinazo iimpawu kwaye zihlala zinjalo ukusukela kwisi-5 ukuya kwiminyaka engama-20.[2][2] Iimpawu ezithi zivele ziquka ii-granuloma zemithambo-luvo, indlela yokuphefumla, isikhumba, namehlo. [2] [2] Oku kungabangela ukungabinakho ukuva intlungu kunye nokulahlekelwa ngamalungu ezandla neenyawo okubangelwa ngumonzakalo ophinda-phindayo okanye isifo esibangelwa ngamanxeba angaqatshelwanga.[4][3] Ubuthathaka kunye nokungaboni kakuhle nako kungakhona.[3]

Iqhenqa liyasasazeka phakathi kwabantu. Kukholeleka ukuba lenzeka ngokukhohlela okanye ngokudibana nencindi esuka kwimpumlo yomntu owosulelekileyo.[4] Iqhenqa lenzeka kakhulu phakathi kwabo bahlala entluphekweni kwaye kukholeleka ukuba lihanjiswa ngamathontsana okuphefumla.[3] Ngokuchasene nenkolelo eyaziwayo, alosuleli kakhulu.[3] Iindidi ezinkulu ezimbini zezifo zisekeke kwinani leentsholongwane ezikhoyo: i-paucibacillary ne-multibacillary.[3] Iindidi ezimbini zahlulwa luthotho lwe-lwezikhumba ezibi, iipetshi zezikhumba ezibi ezikhoyo, ezine-paucibacillary ezine-multibacillary ezintlanu okanye ezimbalwa nangaphezulu kwezintlanu.[3] Uxilongo lngqinisekiswa ngokufunyanwa kwe-acid-fast bacilli kuxilongo lwesicwili sesikhumba okanye ngokufumana i-DNA kusetyenziswa i-polymerase chain reaction.[3]

Iqhenqa liyanyangeka ngonyango olwaziwa njenge-multidrug therapy (MDT).[2] Unyango lweqhenqa le-paucibacillary lungamachiza i-dapsonene-rifampicin kangangeenyanga ezintandathu.[3] Unyango lwe-multibacillary luqulethe i-rifampicin, i-dapsone, ne-clofazimine kangangeenyanga ezili-12.[3] Olu nyango lunikezwa mahala yi-World Health Organization.[2] Uthotho lwamanye amayeza okubulala iintsholongwane nawo anokusetyenziswa.[3] Ehlabathini jikelele ngo-2012, inani leemeko ezingapheliyo zeqhenqa lalingu-189,000 ukwehla ukusukela kwizigidi ezi-5.2 zangoo-1980.[2][5][6] Inani lezi meko zintsha lalingu-230,000.[2] Inkoliso yeemeko ezintsha zenzeka kumazwe ali-16, kunye neNdiya ethatha engaphezulu kwesiqingatha.[2][3] Kwiminyaka engama-20 eyedlulayo, izigidi zabantu ezili-16 ehlabathini jikelele zaphiliswa kwiqhenqa.[2] Zimalunga nama-200 iimeko ezaxelwayo ngonyaka ngamnye eMelika.[7]

Iqhenqa lichaphazele uluntu kangangeminyaka engamawaka-waka.[3] Isifo sithatha igama laso kwigama lesi--Latin elithi lepra into ethetha "scaly", ngelixa igama elithi "Hansen's disease" lithiywe emva kogqirha uGerhard Armauer Hansen.[3]Ukwahlula abantu ngokubabeka kwii-iindawo zabantu abaneqhenqa kusenzeka kwiindawo ezinjenge-India,[8] i-China,[9] neAfrika.[10] Nangona kunjalo, uninzi lweekoloni lwavalwa ngenxa yokuba iqhenqa alosuleli kakhulu.[10]Ukubekwa ibala ekuhlaleni bekusayanyaniswa neqhenqa ixesha elikhulu lasezimbalini, into leyo esaqhubekayo nokuba ngumqobo ekuzixeleni nasekufumaneni unyango lwangoko.[2] Abanye abantu eli gama lithi iqhenqa balithatha njengelisisenyeliso, bakhetha intetho ethi "abantu abosulelwe liqhenqa".[11] I-World Leprosy Day yaqaliswa ngo-1954 ukwazisa ngolwazi kwabo bachatshazelwe liqhenqa.[12]

ImithomboEdit

  1. "New Leprosy Bacterium: Scientists Use Genetic Fingerprint To Nail 'Killing Organism'". ScienceDaily. 2008-11-28. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/11/081124141047.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-31.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 "Leprosy Fact sheet N°101". World Health Organization. Jan 2014. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs101/en/.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 Suzuki K, Akama T, Kawashima A, Yoshihara A, Yotsu RR, Ishii N (February 2012) "Current status of leprosy: epidemiology, basic science and clinical perspectives." The Journal of dermatology 39 (2): 121–9 PMID 21973237 doi:10.1111/j.1346-8138.2011.01370.x 
  4. "Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Transmission". April 29, 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/leprosy/transmission/. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  5. "Global leprosy situation, 2012" Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 87 (34): 317–28 August 2012 PMID 22919737 
  6. Rodrigues LC, Lockwood DNj (June 2011) "Leprosy now: epidemiology, progress, challenges, and research gaps." The Lancet infectious diseases 11 (6): 464–70 PMID 21616456 doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70006-8 
  7. "Hansen's Disease Data & Statistics". http://www.hrsa.gov/hansensdisease/dataandstatistics.html. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  8. Walsh F (2007-03-31) "The hidden suffering of India's lepers" BBC News 
  9. Lyn TE (2006-09-13) "Ignorance breeds leper colonies in China" Independat News & Media retrieved 2010-01-31 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Byrne, Joseph P. (2008) Encyclopedia of pestilence, pandemics, and plagues Westport, Conn.[u.a.]: Greenwood Press p. 351 ISBN 9780313341021 
  11. editors, Enrico Nunzi, Cesare Massone, (2012) Leprosy a practical guide Milan: Springer p. 326 ISBN 9788847023765 
  12. McMenamin, Dorothy (2011) Leprosy and stigma in the South Pacific : a region-by-region history with first person accounts Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland p. 17 ISBN 9780786463237