Isifo esosulelayo

Isifo esosulelayoEdit

Intsholongwane ebangela isifo ibancinci - yintsholongwane engabonakaliyo ngeliso lenyama. Ibangela usuleleko olubangela isigulo okanye isifo. Ngamanye amaxesha, intsholongwane izondla kumamkeli. Ezona ntsholongwane ziqhelekileyo ziibhaktheriya nee-ntsholongwane. [1] Izifo ezibangelwa ziintsholongwane - njengesifo se-COVID-19 - kuthiwa zizifo ezosulelayo.

IintloboEdit

Isifo esineempawu ezingachongekiyo siqobisene nesifo esineempawu ezichongekayo (isifo esingacacanga siqobisene nesifo esicacileyo)Edit

Igama elithi "usuleleko" libhekisa nakweyiphi na intsholongwane ebangela isifo, nokuba sinzima kangakanani na kodwa lisetyenziswa ukuchaza usuleleko oluneempawu ezichongekayo. Ngamanye amaxesha, oku kudala ukudideka okuthile. Kunjalonje, abo bakwicandelo lezonyango badla ngokuthetha ngothatho-lawulo xa iintsholongwane ezibangela izifo zikhona kodwa kungekho sifo sikhoyo.


Usuleleko oluneempawu lohlulwa kabini: isifo esineempawu ezichongekayo kunye nesifo esineempawu ezingachongekiyo. Izifo ezizibonakalisyo/ ezisebenzayo kodwa ezingena mpawu kuthiwa zizifo ezineempawu ezingachongekiyo (okanye ezingacacanga okanye ezithuleyo)

Usuleleko olungekaphuhli lusuleleko olukhoyo kodwa olungekasebenzi okanye oluthuleyo. Umz. isifo sephepha esithuleyo lusuleleko lwebhaktheriya ethuleyo. Usuleleko lweentsholongwane nalo luyakwazi ukuthula, umzekelo ii-herpes.


Usuleleko luphinda lohlulwe kabini kwezi ndidi zilandelayo: izifo ezikhawuleza ukuphuhla, [2] (apho iimpawu zikhawuleza ukuphuhla), izifo ezingakhawuleziyo ukuphuhla,[3] (apho iimpawu ziphuhla ngokuthe chu) izifo eziphuhla ngesantya esiphakathi, (apho iimpawu zithatha ixeshana ukuphuhla kodwa hayi njengesifo esineempawu eziphuhla ngokuthe chu), usuleleko olungekaphuhli (xa iimpawu zingekho kodwa intsholongwane ikhona yona) kunye nosuleleko olugxile kwindawo ethile, [4] (oku kuchaza apho usuleleko luqale khona phambi kokuba lusasazeke emzimbeni wonke).

Ukudluliseka lwesifoEdit

Inkqubo echaza ukudluliseka kweentsholongwane kumntu olandelayo kuthiwa yinkqubo yokudlulisika kweentsholongwane. Iintsholongwane ezithile zibangela usuleleko oluthile kwaye usuleleko ngalunye lune nkqubo yalo yokudluliseka kumntu olandelayo. Ukuqonda ukuba kutheni lusenzeka usuleleko neyona ndlela ilungileyo yokuluthintela, izazinzulu kufuneka siqondisise inkqubo yokudluliseka kweentsholongwane kusuleleko ngalunye.

Inkqubo yokudluliseka kweentsholongwane ibanezigaba ezithile Ngokufutshane, zithi:

  1. Intsholongwane okanye iintsholongwane ezizondla kubamkeli (kuba iphila ngomamkeli) ibayiyo intsholongwane ebangela usuleleko. Ezona ntsholongwane zibangela usuleleko ziqhelekileyo ziintsholongwane kunye nebhaktheriya.
  2. Umamkeli sisilwanyana esinosuleleko esinalentsholongwane okanye ngumntu onosuleleko onalentsholongwane.
  3. Ukuphuma yindlela esetyenziswa yintsholongwane ukuphuma emzimbeni womamkeli.
  4. Inkqubo yokudluliseka kwentsholongwane ibhekisa kwindlela intsholongwane ehamba ngayo kumamkeli idlule iye kumntu olandelayo ongayamkela lula.
  5. Imeko ibhekisa kwimeko evumela intsholongwane iphume kumamkeli idlule iye kumntu olandelayo ongayamkela lula.
  6. Indawo yokungena yindawo engena ngayo intsholongwane emzimbeni womntu olandelayo ongayamkela lula.
  7. Umamkeli olandelayo ibangumntu oza kwamkela/ oza kufumana intsholongwane.[5]

Intsholongwane ingadluliseka ngeendlela ezininzi kumamkeli isiya kumntu ongayamkela lula. Ezinye iintsholongwane zidluliseka ngokutya okanye ngamanzi, ezinye ngokuphathana kwaye ezinye zisemoyeni. Kweli nqaku siza kugxila kwiintsholongwane ezisemoyeni.

Iintsholongwane ezibangela isigulo kumntu onempilo entle ziqobisene neentsholongwane ezibangela isigulo kuba umntu ehleli enganampilo intleEdit

Iintsholongwane ezibangela isigulo kumntu onempilo entle ziqobisene neentsholongwane ezibangela isigulo kuba umntu ehleli enganampilo intleEdit

Zimbalwa izifo ezifunyanwa ngabantu abanempilo entle nangona zininzi iintsholongwane. Inkangeleko kunye nobunzima besifo buxhomekeka kubuchule bomamkeli ekulweni iintsholongwane zesosifo. Ngamanye amaxesha inkqubo yokomelela komzimba ikwayiyo edala iingxaki kumamkeli xa izama ukulawula usuleleko. Yiyo loo nto abasebenzi becandelo lezempilo bezahlula iintsholongwane ezibangela isigulo kumntu onempilo entle kwiintsholongwane ezibangela isigulo kumntu onempilo ehleli ingekhontle.

Iintsholongwane ezibangela isigulo kumntu onempilo entle

Iintsholongwane ezibangela isigulo kumntu onempilo entle (okanye iintsholongwane) zibangela isifo nje ngobukho bazo kumntu onempilo entle. Uninzi lweentsholongwane zabantu zichaphazela abantu kuphela kodwa ezinye izifo ezinzima ziyakwazi ukubangelwa ziintsholongwane ezisingqongileyo okanye ezichaphazela abamkeli abangengabo abantu.[6]

Iintsholongwane ezibangela isigulo kuba umntu ehleli enganampilo intleEdit

Iintsholongwane ezibangela isigulo kuba umntu ehleli enganampilo intle ziyakwazi ukubangela isifo sosuleleko kubantu abangakwazi ukulwa izifo (ukunqongophala kwamandla kwinkqubo yokomelela komzimba/ i-immunodeficiency), okanye kwiimeko ezifana nohlinzo/ notyando okanye ingozi zingafumana ithuba lokungena embzimbeni. Iintsholongwane ezi nje ziyachuma xa umamkeli esempilweni embi.

Usuleleko oluyintsusa luqobisene nosuleleko lwesibiniEdit

Usuleleko oluyintsusa lubonwa njengosuleleko olubangela ingxaki enxulumene nempilo. Usuleleko lwesibini lubhekisa kusuleleko olubangelwe yingxaki edalwe lusuleleko oluyintsusa.

UsulelekoEdit

Izifo ezosulelayo kuthiwa zizifo ezosulelayo kuba zidluliseka lula ngokudibana nomntu ogulayo okanye ngokudibana nolwelo lomzimba lomntu ogulayo (umz. umkhuhlane). Ezinye iintlobo zezifo ezosulelayo okanye ezidluliseka ngendlala ekhethekileyo, njengezifo ezidluliseka ngokwesondo, azichongwa njengezifo "ezosulelekayo", kwaye azidingi ukuba amaxhoba azo ahlale kuvalelo. Izifo ezosulelayo zidla ngokudluliseka kumntu olandelayo ngokuphathana ngqo okanye ngokusasazeka kwamathontsi. Kodwa, ziyakwazi nokudluliseka emoyeni, ekutyeni okungculisekileyo nasemanzini, ukuphathana kwabantu nezilwanyana okanye ukulunywa zizinambuzane.[7]

Imiqondiso neempawuEdit

Iimpawu zesifo zixhomekeka kwintlobo yesigulo. Ezinye iimpawu zosuleleko zichaphazela umzimba wonke, njengokudinwa, ukungalambi, ukuncipha komzimba, umkhuhlane, ukubila kwasebusuku kunye neentlungu. Ezinye zigxila kumalungu athile omzimba, njengamaqhakuva eluswini, ukukhohlela onye imifinya.

Ngamanye amaxesha, izifo ezosulelayo azibonisi mpawu tu kwabanye abantu. Usuleleko alusoloko lunxulumana nesifo esosulelayo, kuba usuleleko oluthile alubangeli sigulo kumamkeli.[8]

Usuleleko lwebhaktheriya okanye olwentsholongwaneEdit

Kuba usuleleko lwebhaktheriya nosuleleko lwentsholongwane lubangela iimpawu eziyeleleneyo, kuthanda ukubanzima ukuchonga ukuba loluphi olubangele usuleleko oluthile.[9] Ukuqonda umahluko kubalulekile, kuba usuleleko lweentsholongwane lunganyangeki ngezibulala-ntsholongwane. Kodwa usuleleko lwebhaktheriya lona luyanyangeka ngazo.[10]


Uthelekiso losuleleko lwentsholongwane nosuleleko lwebhaktheriya
Uphawu Usuleleko lwentsholongwane Usuleleko lwebhaktheriya
Iimpawu eziqhelekileyo Ngokubanzi, usuleleko lweentsholongwane lubandakanya amalungu omzimba amaninzi ohlukileyo okanye iinkqubo zomzimba ezininzi ngexesha elinye; umz. imifinya, ukuxinana kwe-sinus, ukukhohlela, iintlungu zomzimba njalo njalo. Alukho luninzi usuleleko olubangela iintlungu, njenge-herpes. Usuleleko lweentsholongwane luqhele ukuchazwa njengorhawuzelelo okanye ukutshisa. Ezona mpawu ziqhelekileyo zosuleleko lwebhaktheriya bububomvu obugxile kwindawo ethile, bubushushu nokudumba okugxile kwindawo ethile kunye neentlungu ezigxile kwindawo ethile. Eyona mpawu yosuleleko lwebhaktheriya ziintlungu ezigxile kwindawo ethile emzimbeni. Umzekelo, ukuba umntu usikekile emva koko asuleleke yibhaktheriya, iintlungu ziza kuba kulandawo yosulelekileyo. Indawo esikekileyo ekhupha ulwelo olutyheli okanye ulwelo olufana nobisi kungenzeka ukuba yosulelekile.

UnyangoEdit

Xa usuleleko luhlasela umzimba, amayeza okuchasa usuleleko angasetyenziswa ukucinezela usuleleko. Zininzi iintlobo zamayeza ezicinezela usuleleko. Izibulala-ntsholongwane zisebenzela ibhaktheriya kuphela, hayi iintsholongwane. Izibulala-ntsholongwane zisebenza ngokuthoba isantya sokuphindaphindana kwebhaktheriya okanye ngokubulala ibhaktheriya.

ReferencesEdit

  1. "CHAPTER 5. Flies and animal Disease" Flies and Disease (Princeton: Princeton University Press): 268–344 2019-12-31 ISBN 978-0-691-19671-8 
  2. Grinde, Bjørn (2013-01) "Herpesviruses: latency and reactivation – viral strategies and host response" Journal of Oral Microbiology 5 (1): 22766 ISSN 2000-2297 doi:10.3402/jom.v5i0.22766 
  3. Frawley, Dean; Karahoda, Betim; Bayram, Ozlem Sarikaya; Bayram, Ozgur (2019-03-01) "The HamE scaffold positively regulates MpkB phosphorylation to promote development and secondary metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans" Access Microbiology 1 (1A) ISSN 2516-8290 doi:10.1099/acmi.ac2019.po0027 
  4. ELLIOTT, T. (1986-11-01) "Medical microbiology: Edited by S. BARON. 1986, 2nd ed. Addison-Wesley Publishers Ltd, Wokingham, Berks. Pp. xxvi and 1262.  19.95." Journal of Medical Microbiology 22 (3): 284–284 ISSN 0022-2615 doi:10.1099/00222615-22-3-284 
  5. "CHAPTER 5. Flies and animal Disease" Flies and Disease (Princeton: Princeton University Press): 268–344 2019-12-31 ISBN 978-0-691-19671-8 
  6. Norton, John Pitkin; Norton, John Pitkin (1851) Elements of scientific agriculture; or, The connection between science and the art of practical farming. Prize essay of the New York state agricultural society. By John P. Norton. Albany,: E. H. Pease, 
  7. Burg, M. D. (2005-02-01) "Poisoning & Drug Overdose. 4th ed: Kent R. Olson, MD. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill, 2004, 718 pages, $50.00 (softcover)" Academic Emergency Medicine 12 (2): 180–181 ISSN 1069-6563 doi:10.1197/j.aem.2004.09.005 
  8. Norton, John Pitkin; Norton, John Pitkin (1851) Elements of scientific agriculture; or, The connection between science and the art of practical farming. Prize essay of the New York state agricultural society. By John P. Norton. Albany,: E. H. Pease, 
  9. Anderson, Ashaunta (2016-05) "Serious Bacterial Infections and Viral Infections in Febrile Infants" 50 Studies Every Pediatrician Should Know (Oxford University Press): 165–170 ISBN 978-0-19-020403-7 
  10. "Infobase Publishing". http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/_afco_asc_3273. Retrieved 2020-07-05.